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Jan Ysselstein

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Jan Ysselstein last won the day on December 19 2023

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    west coast of usa ( USACAstan )
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    shaping and making of steel and iron

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  1. Jacob, yes , by doing mechanical work to a sample while it is cooling prevents large cementite structures from forming …letting it cool to below the transition temperature and heating into the austenite zone again for another cycle and do on.
  2. Well after lots of failed runs , I have 3 new ingots . All 3 were made to be at 1.5% C all were treated alike as close as we can expect ( no thermocouple ). The microstructures are all relatively similar. I will add some pics including some micrographs . Below are pics of the 3 ingots and the furnace after full heat. The micro structures are on another device. The little metal man came out of a leaking crucible during a failed run. Approaching the end of the topic.
  3. Pierre-Jean, I like your work and the idea of working with minimal tooling. Some of your approaches make me think “ wow, this guy is really making it hard for himself”. Regarding the welding with wood ash as flux and the melting point of scale. If the scale is pure iron oxide the melting point is very high, around 1500 C . If it is a mix of silica and iron oxide the melting point may be as low as about 1200 C or so. Folding iron oxide ( as Alan said) into a blade may not be a good idea but if you are using ash during that test you may actually be creating a flux of ironoxide/silica which would migrate by capillary action to your weld surfaces and allow you to have a good weld. This silica iron oxide mix is the flux used for weldingn in the old days in many places. If my comment is out of sinc. With what has been written above it is because I have not yet translated all the comments.
  4. I was given a press having several pancake hydraulic cylinders and 4” thick steel plates. The plates are 48” by 20” by 4” thick. The only use I have had for them has been as bases for small hammers (50 lbs ). As I down size I was spark testing some plate steel before selling them and to my surprise the heavy plates spark just like file steel. I have a call into Element labs for analysis and am wondering if anyone uses a lab. For steel alloy testing. I hope to find out what alloy I am looking at. Thanks. I will post a pic if requested.
  5. Typically I roast at 1150 C for two hours at heat and this last batch should have been air cooled but I left it in the furnace for a slow cool, creating the need for another soak when forging . I see a big change coming for me as the new press setup will allow me to forge fast…..not big bites but many small deformations ….trying to duplicate the guys at Stanford who developed the very soft steels by working them during the cooling from Austenite to a two phase state where the cementite is spheroids. Always something to look forward to.
  6. IMG_5635.mov The gas forge is working well hot enough to roast/forge wootz ..I plan to use a coil to control the temperature…will post it if it works. The 6” channel welded to the top of the forge moves a lot of exhaust from the forge to the rear area and get very hot…I use it as a handle for picking up the forge and a place to use the DET for pattern development. I move the forge a lot as that is the location where the melting furnace goes as well. Redoing the dies for the press and should be ready to go with #4 ingot. Below are some pics of the forge furnace and a short video showing an emphasis in controlling the press…press is running at either 18 or 9 tons ( flip a switch while running or stopped ) . IMG_5635.mov
  7. Built a gas forge today ……forged some of of the halves, a little crack here and there. Overall it is going well. #4 is being held out until I am sure it is going well. Thermocouple color looks quite yellow at 1045 C….I am confused, and went with the readout.
  8. And now there are 6 remaining. I cut the 3 remaining ingots in half and only #4 has what May be a shrinkage cavity…I do not think it will be a problem in the end. Will be getting back to this again in about a week. Meanwhile I will continue with solid fuel and judging colors. Edit, I will continue testing charcoal...coke would work well if I set up an indirect heating method ...which I do not want to get into right now.
  9. Oops on to the next ingot….transition from charcoal at night (lights off) to coke in the daylight has a learning curve.
  10. Looking at the current microstructure I see carbides at the grain boundaries and on the grinding trails remaining after etching with ferric sulphate. I do not want to start forging with the relatively large cards already in place...... I will try to dissolve them before starting the heavy forging. 45 minutes at a light orange heat...start forging from there and forge to 700 C..( or at least (1100 C )let the forged ingot cycle to 700 near black heat.
  11. A thank you to Jerrod Miller for looking at my rough pictures. Jerrod suggested the bright spots may be pits reflecting light they seem to be aligned with some of the scratch marks from grinding/sanding. Spent a bit more time hand forging in charcoal heat...Did find myself getting into a reddish color once in a while. Next step is to take a peek at the current structure and decide if a long hold is going to be required when the machine forging starts. The only volume I am now concerned with is the area near the top/center of the ingot....that volume received the least amount of deformation. I will add some pics from a different machine. below are the results of forging the outer ring back and forth to make it more ductile so it can withstand the stretching when I forge the center down. The time spent was probably not needed but I want to see the pattern of these 4 ingots and compare them. 1 ) bottom of the ingot now on top 2) top of the original ingot 3) side view of ingot
  12. "So don't be afraid to speak up, if the mood strikes you. " Most years we take a drive to the South West to look at wild flowers and the Desert .I can throw some stuff in the car an we can do one together (if you are not too far from California). If that is good for you we can discuss who will do what and when. If we are good I will go and ask for permission.
  13. Joshua.....this is so routine for me I do not even cry anymore when it does. Stay with it ..I see you are working with Daniel and he is very good at this.
  14. Post removed as I realize what/why I saw what I saw. Clarification After roasting for 2 hrs at 1150 C I took a look at my microstructures. I am experimenting with various coatings on the ingots to reduce the scale formation ( I do not have faith in a decarburized layer holding it all together while beginning the forging ).So, I should have expected different microstructures with different methods. The microstructures were looked at after only removing the bare minimum of the surface of the ingot ( maybe a 1/32") . I was looking at the decarb layer of the surface. I never see ferrite like that and I have to look into why the last of the cementite would be located in the ferrite areas. Today I started forging ingot #1 ..all based on the visual temperature while heating over charcoal. Red is too cold just orange is close but not yet, orange present for a while and being heated is good...yellow is high risk behavior light yellow is scary. I stayed in orange the whole time. So far the ingot feels good no power tools yet. Maybe another 6-8 forging cycles and to the hammer ( very lightly ). I will post a picture when all is cold to the touch. Surface microstructure of ingot # 1 After 2 hrs. roast at 1150 C
  15. Continued to forge the severely cracked ingot , heated by charcoal. I did not attach a rod and will not be attaching a rod in future forging until about 10 cycles of forging ( cautiously ). There are some solid volumes remaining in the ingot, I will push to a point where I can etch to have a look. I am feeling confident about forging the 4 above ingots in this manner. Ingots # 1 and #3 will go first…..#2 and #4 are more special (100% homemade iron and larger ingot,#2 ) and (very peculiar looking ingot,hidden shrinkage cavity #4 ). I will demonstrate how to find such a cavity before I start forging that ingot.
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