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Jan Ysselstein

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Everything posted by Jan Ysselstein

  1. I made crucibles for the next push. Trying to make a more reliable crucible.....done hoping.things work out . I am looking at a crucible I have never seen (nor remnants of it). I keep hearing it existed ,I think it did .
  2. The pit is sill full of charcoal, rain is coming our way...I would like to exit the iron making process by using up all remnants of ore and charcoal. If the rain is robust. I may give steel making a shot. Making steel is a bit trickier than cast iron as steel making requires slag management. This run is not to be due to other priorities.
  3. Yesterday, I tried and experiment in cast iron smelting by running for about two hrs. with an air inlet about 6" from the bottom of my furnace, then at a scheduled time changed the air supply to a higher inlet by about 8"..this combination allowed me to run for 6.5 hrs straight. The yield came in two main blooms and lots of bits as I had to get a little rough extracting the fragile blooms. The clean bottom bloom is 13 lbs the top bloom is 17 lbs the clean bits are 7 lbs. 78 lbs of ore was added to the furnace giving a yield of 66 % . I have posted some pictures below. The ore was magnetite the charcoal homemade 50/50 hard and fir. The furnace was operated by one person, charcoal was sized at the time of smelting. Below are some pics of the bottom bloom and the top bloom top bloom is in the center.
  4. The bigger furnace ran for 6.5 hrs. and used 78 lbs of ore as well as lots of charcoal today and I am tired. Charcoal is sorted and brought to the site during smelting....that can be a real challenge for an old guy. I will have a look in the morning to see how it looks. I can predict a best case outcome based on previous yields...A 33-35 lbs. clean cast iron bloom would be a very good result .. I will be happy with what I get. Making really pretty blooms is a mixd blessing..how am I going to smash up a beautiful bloom/.
  5. I am not exited about running the recycled ore...it seem fresh ore does just as well...the yield of clean cast is about 40%.... Here are some pictures of the cast iron that little cupcake like thing was sitting on top of the cast iron until I broke it off. Yield is about 11-12 pounds of clean cast iron. So Saturday I will be running the large furnace and the small furnace to clean up all the charcoal prior to things getting really dry ..by the way this charcoal at zero volatiles produces no spark when burning in the furnace. The big furnace is somewhat based on an article ( Tatara Costruction and Operation. ), no longer around on the internet it was written by Yoko Yamabe-Mitarai and suggested warming up the furnace by heating the initial charges through the slag tap hole located below the normal air inlet ( this is a slag tapping furnace while mine is not ). The big furnace will heat and operate for about 1- 1.5 hrs. using an air inlet about 6 inches from the bottom...then the air supply will move up about 6 to 8 inches more and the run will be finished ..end of the run will be dependent on the condition of the operator..I will have another masked guy running around helping me. Top surface of the bloom Cup cake type shape of cast iron sitting on top the bloom during smelting Bottom view of the bloom
  6. Lots of time constraints today...did not run the bigger furnace. Ran for about 3hrs and used 33pounds of ore (mixed magnetite and recycled unconsolidated ore ). Had to slow way down as the recycled ore wanted to fly out of the furnace. Next shot is on Saturday butI will post a picture of today’s run when it has cooled manana.
  7. I am hoping to do a large cast iron run in the next two-three days....larger furnace, more room for the cast iron down below. ( there will literally be a fire in the belly of that furnace ).fingers crossed ...first time I have tried that. Longest run to date is 3.5 hrs at a 16 lbs yield...hoping for more this time. The ore is mixed with some material that has made a pass through the furnace but did not consolidate due to getting to a low temperature area ..I pick it out with a magnet and use it as a mix.This will be it from as far as blooming is concerned I have a guy coming over to participate in a day or two and will give him my furnace..I have plenty of material to work with.
  8. I am sure nothing was wasted..the charcoal I make is very different than the pine charcoal made in Japan. This big fire pit goes until there are no=Zero volatiles left in the wood. I have had to shorten my furnace and tune in my air flow to match this material. I am poised to do another couple of runs as we have had a decent rain today and are expecting another next week. I will be making cast iron and high carbon steel ( the cast iron has priority....the high carbon steel is mainly to see if I can still do it ). Also the amount of charcoal sitting around has to be reduced ..all is in metal containers but I only need a few barrels go hardwood charcoal. BY the way the charcoal fines test was quite positive I ran the furnace like the Catalan forge ( horizontal air going in though )..the temperature of the ore did not go high enough for the ore to fuse as it does very high up in the normal charcoal furnace. So I ended up with an iron powder having varying degrees of reduction ...I have a crude way of estimating the degree of reduction /carburization but it is really rough. I combined this partially reduced ore with old similar material for a future run. There are a couple of other ideas I will try when I have nothing to do. Now I have a lot of biochar which seems to work pretty well in the garden. Below a couple of pics of recent runs ...they are not directly related. I f I run hard and soft wood , I do the harwood first and top off the pit with the soft wood as that charcoal is more friable. Below is also a picture of a flower not grown in biochar but doing quite well.
  9. The volume of charcoal not going into the furnace is probably 30 %, the % weight is probably 40 %...that is a lot of material going into biochar for the garden. I am starting to test methods which may allow me to use all the charcoal ......that would be a quantum leap for this process . The last two runs of cast iron making were 58% and 53% efficiency...now if I can get the charcoal yield ( as % of total made, going into the furnace ) up to over 75%, I will be very pleased. I do not think the iron akers we are trying to duplicate threw the "fines " away ...very exiting regardless of the outcome. The use of the fines has to be accomplished at a reasonable amount of labor or it will not be cost effective.
  10. Made my last batch of charcoal today and probably will not go back to doing that in the future.....done. I tried heating a large chunk of metal in my charcoal furnace and could not get beyond a yellow heat. The 14 inch diameter tube allowed the heat zone to spread too far too quickly ...considering other configurations.
  11. This post probably should go to "Pit Charcoal" as the bloom was made with my charcoal a few days ago.. I was shooting for cast iron and have a good supply from the first two runs. The third run is too beautiful to smash as an ingredient...I would if I were desperate. Here are some pictures of the runs ( they all kind of look the same ) . The Key here is match ing the charcoal to the furnace and the method ( method = rate of everything ). Regarding the current topic it is worth reflecting on the variables that might have made the ( Konasamudram Process ) a successful way of making beautiful steel. I am open to suggestions. The chemistry of the melt...the melting/cooling process/ the forging process / heat treating process...all of these contribute to the final product. The only options I have is to use my steel which I think qualifies as a very clean steel. I will start by taking an old graphite crucible ( with a hole in it ) and cutting it in half adding a mix of soft and hard iron to a carbon content around 2.3- 2.5% Carbon. Then I will create ( carve from soft brick ) a conical top. The reason for the high Carbon is to do a run that is easier to melt than a lower carbon mix. If I get comfortable with heating by charcoal and getting a good melt I will do it a gain with a higher melting point mix. Though the conical lid is a good solution for grabbing a crucible in a fire I am not confident and have a lack of familiarity. My biggest fear is the varying rates of expansion and contraction of the ceramics involved ( causing breakage). Here are some pictures of cast iron . First, the bloom as pulled from the furnace cold,,,,,,,,,then the 16 lbs. cleaned bloom....then the bloom power washed to remove most of the charcoal ...That was run 3 of 3..runs 1 and 2 gave me plenty material to work with.
  12. I have spent a lot of time experimenting with various ingot carbon content and still want to do two more tests before my temporary crucible furnace is demolished. I find all this very exiting as it connects me with the steel workers of the past..same problems similar solutions. Soon I will not be allowed to have a charcoal fire outside and fire prevention regulations will go into effect. So I will give the Konasamudram' Process a shot , I will try to duplicate the original ceramic ( I have done so in the past )...but in any case I will become familiar with the concept of holding a crucible in afire at high temps and for a long time. I will post some pictures as we go along. The fir charcoal I make in the fire pit is fine for a short furnace iron run but too fragile for hanging a crucible in and constantly lifting it/letting it settle and so on. I will use some old hardwood charcoal and some purchased charcoal. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/isijinternational/54/5/54_1030/_pdf/-char/en https://www.academia.edu/38120945/Similar_like_White_and_Black_a_Comparison_of_Steel-making_Crucibles_from_Central_Asia_and_the_Indian_Subcontinent._In_Man_and_Mining_Mensch_und_Bergbau_Studies_in_honour_of_Gerd_Weisgerber_on_occasion_of_his_65th_birthday_..pdf The above paper (upper one ) will give a little context to the topic. The actual contents going into the crucible are assumed to be cast and soft iron but that has a degree of uncertainty. The description in the above paper of the ingredients as described by Voysey are of particular interest to me and you. The crucibles sitting in the colander in the photo just above were ( the dark ones ) made with charred rice husks ..some fared better than others...but we have to try.
  13. Jeremy... For what it is worth my suggestion is get a 3" diameter cylinder maybe a 14" stroke...and a weight of under 100 pounds for the hammer head. Get done and see how it works for you..look at your speeds and operating variables ( air requirements , costs ). Now you have a hammer with a weight ratio of 100/infinity that is really good. Then look at the math of that cylinder each stroke is 4 times the volume of the 3" cylinder and the large volumes of that 30 inch stoke will kill you by using a lot of air that is doing no work. Good luck on the sand smelting caution it is habit forming ...wash the sand and let it dry before cleaning with a magnet. Heat it with a propane torch and see if a foul smell comes off ...that is sulfur.
  14. Here are a couple of pics of the durable furnace which finally gave it up. Looking back at why the crucible failed ...I would say it was too big for the furnace and heated very unevenly....when some of the surface got hot the stresses were just too much. I had never encountered that type of problem before so live and learn. I have used that furnace shell to make a new one ( 2 hrs time including the demolition of the old one). This furnace will not last as long but I just have to get at least 1 more melt to complete my experiment with various carbon concentrations. I will post a picture of the new furnace when I get a camera in the shop.
  15. The furnace died today...I will take a poker to the cast iron bottom on the inside ...if it comes loose, I try that last one again ( it is a valuable point for the data). If that does not work, a forging we will go, lots of material to forge.
  16. I will not bother to post the ingot of the day..a few pits but all in all it went very well. Tomorrow is my last run and the forge will be back in place. All ingots will be cut in half , only one section of each will be forged. The ingots all have a different life history/chemistry and should provide some insight into the historical methods. The virus has me in the shop more than normal. Each melt requires 3 hrs of furnace time plus material prep. I am using my homemade cast iron about 3.2--3.5% carbon. and a material called Norway iron ( an early steel from Sweden very clean just like wrought iron but no slag and low P ). There is enough material on hand to do about a dozen more ingots. I am including some pictures from the early days when my crucibles were a bit thicker in the walls...( I will be going back to this type before leaving the subject altogether) . These pics are from 2006 or 2007.
  17. The little furnace is still going ...though the bore is getting too small due to frequent applications of kiln wash. Here is todays ingot 1.9 % carbon because I did not add all the ingredients ....but it looks good. All I have left now is a really low carbon run about 1.4% C . I think I have the melting process down . Here are a couple of pics. The 3 ingots are very different and should provide a mix of patterns. Crucibles (2 of these) are ready to go ..after that I will take the furnace down after Cecil von Schwartz gets a chance...I have done some preliminary testing on that subject.
  18. They should, though they look alike, their chemistry is quite different. I seem to have run into a couple of forgiving crucibles. I did do a 2000 gram tall narrow ingot but did not hold it long enough at high temperature. I will run a few of those again this week. Now back to the Oct 4 post of last year looking for a way to make that pattern. That is not my ideal pattern, I am hoping to finish up with a pattern showing at least some very recognizable dendrites ( or dendrite fragments 0.
  19. Today I did another run of the same material shooting for a lower carbon content ( which I may regret ) . I am on a mission to destroy my crucible furnace so I can switch back to placing a forge furnace in its place ( either one or the other not both )...it just will not die. The ingot is 1500 grams and should be 1.5 to 1.4 % C. I will be cutting both of these in half before forging.
  20. Dug up some cast iron and melted an ingot today ...looks really good ...;about 1450 grams .......the crucible was cracked but not all the way to the metal ( luck ). Here are some pics and I will be cutting it in half tomorrow. The crack was created by the shrinkage of the low bisque fired crucible shrinking agains the high fired lid.
  21. Cleaning up the place of burnable yard material...I did another charcoal run, during the coming week I will be making some more cast iron ( I am shooting for a very large bloom of cast iron). We will use it to make some crucible steel during the month of March ( some of that cast iron will be turned into steel in the hearth). I took no pics as it all still looks the same as some of the posts above. Below are a couple of pics of a tuyre I am making ..a wax pattern made by dipping a foil wrapped chair leg into hot wax...I hope to cast it later this week.The casting will be copper with a little silicon in it.
  22. I am not sure what you mean with a wrought iron run..how do you know your iron does not contain P?
  23. Both of your diagrams have the propane-entering at 90 degrees to the direction of air flow.....if the gas is coming in parallel and in the same direction as the air flow your set up may keep running if the power goes out .
  24. Forgive me if I have not read this correctly...looking at your colorful diagram I see the need for the green colored NC solenoid valve as a safety decice. You will have to create a switch that will not open that valve after a power outage. I would put the controlling valve on the line having the lower propane flow to the burner. The larger flow would be just capable of achieving a temperature almost at the set point . With both gas valves ( larger needle and the smaller needle/solenoid). open your set point can be reached. The blower stays on and when controlling your only disadvantage is a slightly oxidizing flame for a very short time..
  25. Troels ...Are you aware of the amount of smoke you will be generating......I could not do that here...due to neighbor's expectation and a local solution control board.......so I do it in an open pit , which most people have a misconception of. I live in a fairly rural area. .
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