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Jeroen Zuiderwijk

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Jeroen Zuiderwijk last won the day on March 3

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    Bronze age, iron age, early medieval.

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  1. You need to add the flux well before that, or your surfaces will already have formed scale. You can add borax before you heat up your steel, though it doesn't stick then yet, or heat it to a dull red, so it melts directly onto the steel. When welding two or more pieces together, it's commonly already attached together. Most use a few tack welds, but if you don't have a welder, you can use some steel wire to hold the pieces together. Then apply flux at the gaps, and let it melt in between. Heat up to the point the borax starts to smoke, and gently tap the pieces together (soft hits, fast across the surface). When the pieces have joined, you can start to hit with more force again. It will take a few welding runs to make the join solid all the way.
  2. The first image you show is Jorgensen's seax type 4: Sax4: OAL 68-99 cm, Blade L 51-85, W 5-5.9, Ratio blade L/W 12.6 8th C, here the only continental parallels are in north Germany/Austria, this is where the Scandinavian saxes split off at the start of the Viking era. More types and size ranges can be found in Jeff Pringle's post here:
  3. This should have been obvious, but don't put a damp crucible into the furnace. I'd left it outside after a casting to cool down, when rain had passed over. It looked dry, so I thought it must not have been in the rain directly. Aparantly it was, it just soaked it up well. Anyway, that cost me a these days precious and rare casting opportunity, and 65 euro for a new crucible. I'd have had another sword if I'd been more careful.
  4. It's not a topic for that group, as it focusses on recreating techniques from the past only. The important thing is how do the alloys you want to fuse together behave at the right temperature. Are they forgeable at that heat? Traditional tin bronze isn''t, it will just crumble . The only way to fuse those is to have alloys with enough difference in melting point, and have one melt while the other stays solid. A trick to make that easier is to melt the bronze with the low melting point first in a crucible, take the crucible out of the furnace, and stick the other alloy into the crucible. That way the colder metal will cool the liquid bronze, so it will all solidify into a solid lump. And then you have to cut that to size, and cold work/anneal if you want to work it further.
  5. And yesterday behind the furnace for the first time since my daughter was born. Another of the big bronze Ommerschans dirks (one more, then I'm done casting these):
  6. From: https://www.carnmetals.co.uk/ I got one of their big 26kg ingots years ago. The first 16kg is gone, partly sold and partly used up by myself (no idea on what, it went much faster then I expected :) ). This last chunk still had to be processed into smaller bits.
  7. First time since my daughter is born I got to cast something again I have the house for myself due to construction work being done, so I'm taking the opportunity to do some metalwork. I had a 10kg tin ingot that had to be turned into more manageable size pieces, so they can be cut to size for future casting projects. So the large ingot went into the kitchen oven in an old pan at 250C, and 2 hours later cast into ingots.
  8. Personally I find horns a nuisance, which are terribly in the way. So an old style hornless anvil or a large size square stake anvil I find ideal for bladesmithing, preferably with a lot of mass right below the edges, the heavier the better. A hardy hole on one side can be quite helpful. At least there should be two sides at a right angle without anything in the way like a horn or a hardy hole, which is where I do all of the beveling etc.
  9. There's an Anglo-Saxon one in the British Museum that is quite slender and light weight. I believe the complete sword weighs about 750gram.
  10. What you experience is the van der Waals force between the two plates. If you get the atoms close enough, they start to attract eachother. But for them to bond, they have flat at the atomic level. At that point, the plates would become one by simply touching them together. You may experience that some spots do weld together, which need to be broken apart though, particularly if you press them together.
  11. The last part isn't true. It can't get colder, as temperature is defined by the vibrational motion of atoms, rather then the motion being a result of temperature. So zero vibrational motion of atoms is the absolute lowest possible temperature. It's not the lowest enthalpy state however, but that is not temperature.
  12. Some things to keep in mind, on the mainland (Frankish Empire), seaxes disappear either during or shortly after the reign of Charlemagne (followed by Louis the Pious). In the Isles, they disappear after the Norman conquest. History isn't really my thing though. And yeah, I don't fancy spending the precious time I have to write a book. I've uploaded most of the photos and documents I have (still in progress of adding more) to the facebook group. So basically if you go there you can quite easily catch up on what I know on the subject.
  13. I don't know, changes in regulations, battle tactics etc. In the Isles you also had seaxes of short size as well as longsaxes, while on the continent there were only longseaxes, which formed part of warriors weapon kits. I suspect that the shorter ones were carried by civilians as personal defence. Something also to keep in mind is that burrying the dead with their weapons stopped around the same time as seaxes disappear from the archaeological record. So there may have been more around then the archaeological record shows. However, swords continu to be found in later periods, while seaxes disappear.
  14. Before patternwelding became common, seaxes were constructed the same way as knives, which just about any combination to have a steel edge and iron body. However, I've never seen a fully steel seax with an iron tang welded onto it myself. Rounded spines on seaxes were used simultaneously in Anglo Saxon and Frankish regions. The broken back shape is later, and the reason you mostly see them from the British Isles is because seaxes disappear from the archaeological record in Frankish regions at the time the broken back becomes the common style.
  15. I've never seen this on any of the seaxes I've studied. Which seaxes were these?
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